Ejercicio físico, funcionamiento cerebral e imagen corporal

José Moncada-Jiménez

Resumen


La imagen corporal es un componente del yo, y se ha estimado que una cantidad importante de mujeres y hombres de diversas edades, razas y orígenes étnicos poseen insatisfacción de su imagen corporal. Por lo tanto, el tema de la imagen corporal preocupa a la opinión pública ya que se le ha relacionado con conductas tales como los desórdenes alimenticios. La anorexia y la bulimia constituyen las enfermedades más importantes. La presente revisión resume las relaciones entre las áreas cerebrales involucradas en la generación y evaluación del cuerpo humano, y la manera en que el ejercicio físico podría influir en esas zonas para producir una imagen corporal objetiva y precisa. Recientemente, se ha identificado el área corporal extraestriada (ACE) como la estructura cerebral primordialmente responsable del reconocimiento del cuerpo humano. Se deben realizar más estudios que involucren el ACE. En esta revisión también se discuten aspectos relacionados con el metabolismo cerebral en reposo y durante el ejercicio físico y su relación con cambios en la estructura y funcionamiento cerebral. Finalmente, se presenta un resumen de los estudios sobre el efecto del ejercicio aeróbico y contra resistencia en la imagen corporal.

Palabras clave


imagen corporal; sistema del yo; cerebro; metabolismo; ejercicio

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22544/rcps.v29i43.05

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