De la neuroplasticidad a las propuestas aplicadas: estimulación temprana y su implementación en Costa Rica / From Neuroplasticity to Applied Proposals: Early Stimulation and Its Implementation in Costa Rica

Johanna Sibaja-Molina, Tracy Sánchez-Pacheco, Mijail Rojas-Carvajal, Jaime Fornaguera-Trías

Resumen


Español

La discusión en torno a la influencia del ambiente sobre la ontogenia ha alimentado la interrogante sobre cuál es el grado en el que, a través de la manipulación del contexto, se modifican las características de los individuos. Actualmente, la evidencia científica desde distintos campos (e.g., Psicología del desarrollo, Neurociencias) describe cómo el ambiente es capaz de modular los procesos del desarrollo y las distintas capacidades del cerebro, así como los mecanismos plásticos que subyacen a dicha modulación. Con base en esta evidencia, distintas aproximaciones metodológicas orientadas a la estimulación temprana (ET) se han propuesto potenciar el desarrollo o remediar problemas que se presentan durante las etapas tempranas del ciclo vital. En este contexto, se brinda una revisión del tema y se ofrece un marco teórico general sobre los antecedentes y sobre los principios que sustentan la estimulación del sistema nervioso (i.e., plasticidad cerebral). Además, a través de una aproximación empírica y un proceso de revisión bibliográfica, se presenta la evidencia disponible de algunos de los métodos de mayor conocimiento/uso en Costa Rica (i.e., Doman Delacato, Snoezelen®, Point y Bebé Políglota). Al recapitular los alcances y las limitaciones de la ET, se concluye que es necesario sistematizar las experiencias profesionales de forma tal que permitan abrir un debate académico sobre el tema.  

English

The discussion about environmental influence on ontogeny has fueled the question about how much context manipulation can regulate individuals’ characteristics. Today, scientific evidence from different fields (e.g., developmental psychology, neuroscience) describes not only how environment can modulate brain development and function, but also the plastic mechanisms involved. In consequence, different methodological approximations of early stimulation (ES) have arisen, although they are not necessarily based on solid empirical evidence. In this context, a brief approximation to the ES background is provided, as well as a general framework about brain plasticity. In addition, the theoretical and practical perspective of the ES practitioners is also described by detailing the empirical evidence around its most known/used variants in Costa Rica (i.e., Doman-Delacato, Snoezelen®, Point and Bebé políglota). Finally, bringing up the scope and limitations of ES, we conclude that the professional experiences need to be systematized, in order to open an academic debate on the subject.


Palabras clave


Estimulación temprana, plasticidad, neurodesarrollo, Doman-Delacato, Snoezelen®, Método Point, Bebé Políglota, Early stimulation, plasticity, neurodevelopment, Doman-Delacato, Snoezelen®, Point method, Polyglot world

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Abraham, N. M., Vincis, R., Lagier, S., Rodriguez, I., & Carleton, A. (2014). Long term functional plasticity of sensory inputs mediated by olfactory learning. Elife, 3, e02109.

American Academy of Pediatrics (1968). The Doman-Delacato treatment of neurologically handicapped children. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 10, 243-246.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (1999).The treatment of neurologically impaired children using patterning. Pediatrics, 104(5), 1149–1151.

Atkin, L. C., Superville, T., Sawyer, R., & Cantón, P. (1987). Paso a paso: Cómo evaluar el desarrollo y crecimiento de los niños. México: UNICEF/PAX.

Baker-Henningham, H., & López-Boo, F. (2014). Intervenciones de estimulación infantil temprana en los países en vías de desarrollo: Lo que funciona, por qué y para quién. Económica, 60, 120-186.

Bluma, S. M., Shearer, M., Forman, A., & Hillard, J. (1978). Guía Portage de Educación Preescolar. Barcelona: TEA.

Bonnier, C. (2008). Evaluation of early stimulation programs for enhancing brain development. Acta Paediatrica, 97(7), 853-858.

Botts, B. H., Hershfeldt, P. A., & Christensen-Sandfort, R. J. (2008). Snoezelen® empirical review of product representation. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 23(3), 138-147.

Bowlby, J. (1952). Maternal care and mental health. Geneva: WHO.

Bozic, N. (1997). Constructing the room: multi-sensory rooms in educational contexts. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 12(1), 54-70.

Brady, S., Siegel, G., Albers, R. W., & Price, D. (Eds.). (2012). Basic neurochemistry: Principles of molecular, cellular and medical neurobiology (8th ed.). Massachusetts: Academic Press.

Bratt, B. (1989). No Time for Jello: One family’s experiences with the Doman-Delacato Patterning Program. Massachusetts: Brookline Books.

Brenes, J. C., Lackinger, M., Höglinger, G. U., Schratt, G., Schwarting, R. K., & Wöhr, M. (2016). Differential effects of social and physical environmental enrichment on brain plasticity, cognition, and ultrasonic communication in rats. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 524( 8), 1586–1607.

Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. En R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child development: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (pp. 793-828). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Chaparro, T. (2010). Método de lectura Glenn Doman. Revista Arista digital, 3, 1106-1125.

Chavarría-González, M. (1982). La estimulación temprana: apuntes sobre sus fundamentos teóricos, bases empíricas y raíces socio-históricas: elementos para una discusión. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 23, 41-56.

Crook, S. M., Davison, A. P., & Plesser, H. E. (2013). Learning from the past: approaches for reproducibility in computational neuroscience. In J.M. Bower (Ed.), 20 Years of Computational Neuroscience (pp. 73-102). New York, NY: Springer.

Cruickshank, W. (1968). Position statement on Doman-Delacato method. Exceptional Children, 34(5), 365-366.

Delacato, C. H. (1959). The treatment and prevention of reading problems: The neuro-psychological approach. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Deng, W., Aimone, J. B., & Gage, F. H. (2010). New neurons and new memories: how does adult hippocampal neurogenesis affect learning and memory? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(5), 339-350.

Doman, G., & Doman, J. (2006). How to teach your baby to read: the gentle revolution. Long Island, N.Y.: Squareone Publisher.

Doman, R. J., Spitz, E. B., Zucman, E., Delacato, C. H., & Doman, G. (1960). Children with severe brain injuries: Neurological organization in terms of mobility. JAMA, 174(3), 257-262.

Editorial Baby Star (3 de septiembre de 2009). El cerebro bebé políglota. [Archivo de video] Recuperado de: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y1a8QNqUC5M

Engert, F., & Bonhoeffer, T. (1999). Dendritic spine changes associated with hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. Nature, 399(6731), 66-70.

Fernández, I., Fuente, J., & Rueda, J. (1991). Escala Haizea-Llevant. Vitoria: Departamento de Publicaciones del Gobierno Vasco.

Fowler, S. (2008). Multisensory rooms and environments: Controlled sensory experiences for people with profound and multiple disabilities. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Frankenburg, W. K., & Dodds, J. B. (1967). The Denver developmental screening test. The Journal of Pediatrics, 71(2), 181-191. Doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(67)80070-2

Geinisman, Y. (2000). Structural synaptic modifications associated with hippocampal LTP and behavioral learning. Cerebral Cortex, 10(10), 952-962.

Ghalambor, C. K., McKay, J. K., Carroll, S. P., & Reznick, D. N. (2007). Adaptive versus non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity and the potential for contemporary adaptation in new environments. Functional Ecology, 21(3), 394-407.

Giese, K. P., & Mizuno, K. (2013). The roles of protein kinases in learning and memory. Learning & Memory, 20(10), 540-552.

Glass, G. V. (1968). Educational Piltdown Men. The Phi Delta Kappan, 50(3), 148-151.

Glass, G. V., & Robbins, M. P. (1967). A critique of experiments on the role of neurological organization in reading performance. Reading Research Quarterly, 3(1), 5-51.

Haegele, J. A., & Porretta, D. L. (2014). Snoezelen multisensory environment. Palaestra, 28(4), 29-32.

Haeussler, I. M., & Marchant, T. (1985). Test de Desarrollo Psicomotor (TEPSI). Santiago: Editorial Universidad Católica.

Haggar, L. E., & Hutchinson, R. B. (1991). Snoezelen: An approach to the provision of a leisure resource for people with profound and multiple handicaps. Journal of the British Institute of Mental Handicap (APEX), 19(2), 51-55.

Hebb, D. O. (1949). The organization of behavior. New York, NY: Wiley.

Hernández, R.M. & Rodríguez, S. (1987). Manual Operativo para la Evaluación y Estimulación del Crecimiento y Desarrollo del Niño. San José: EUNED.

Hogg, J., Cavet, J., Lambe, L., & Smeddle, M. (2001). The use of ‘Snoezelen’ as multisensory stimulation with people with intellectual disabilities: a review of the research. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 22(5), 353-372.

Hornby, G., Atkinson, M., & Howard, J. (2013). Controversial issues in special education. New York, N.Y.: Routledge.

Hotz, G. A., Castelblanco, A., Lara, I. M., Weiss, A. D., Duncan, R., & Kuluz, J. W. (2006). Snoezelen: A controlled multi-sensory stimulation therapy for children recovering from severe brain injury. Brain Injury, 20(8), 879-888.

Hulsegge, J., & Verheul, A. (1988). Snoezelen: Another World. Chesterfied, Derbyshire: ROMPA.

James, W. (1890). Principles of psychology. New York: Holt.

Kamerman, S. B. (2006). A global history of early childhood education and care. Background paper for EFA Global Monitoring Report 2007. Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Kandel, E., Schwartz, J., Jesell, T., Siegelbaim, S.A., & Hudspeth, A.J. (Eds.). (2013). Principles of Neural Science (5th ed.). E.E.U.U.: McGraw Hill.

Kershner, J. R. (1967). An investigation of the Doman-Delacato theory of neuropsychology as it applies to trainable mentally retarded children in public schools (Tesis de Maestría inédita). Universidad de Bucknell, Estados Unidos. Recuperada de http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED015604.pdf

Kolb, B., Gibb, R., & Robinson, T. E. (2003). Brain plasticity and behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(1), 1-5.

Kolb, B., & Whishaw, I. Q. (1998). Brain plasticity and behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 49(1), 43-64.

Lancioni, G. E., Cuvo, A. J., & O’Reilly, M. F. (2002). Snoezelen: an overview of research with people with developmental disabilities and dementia. Disability and Rehabilitation, 24(4), 175-184.

Leo Global Kids. (10 de julio de 2010). Soporte pedagógico. Recuperado de: http://www.leoglobalkids.com/pdfs/soportepedagogico_metodopoliglota.html

Lotan, M., & Gold, C. (2009). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of individual intervention in the controlled multisensory environment (Snoezelen®) for individuals with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 34(3), 207-215.

Lotan, M., & Shapiro, M. (2005). Management of young children with Rett disorder in the controlled multi-sensory (Snoezelen) environment. Brain and Development, 27, S88-S94.

Lüscher, C., & Malenka, R. C. (2012). NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTP/LTD). Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 4, 1-16.

MacKay, D. N., Gollogly, J., & McDonald, G. (1986). The Doman-Delacato treatment methods: I. Principles of neurological organization. The British Journal of Mental Subnormality, 32(62), 3-19.

Método bebé políglota Costa Rica. (1 febrero de 2016a). Beneficios [Sitio Web]. Recuperado de: http://bebepoliglotacostarica.com/beneficios.php

Método bebé políglota Costa Rica. (1 febrero de 2016b). Método Bebé Políglota [Sitio Web]. Recuperado de: http://bebepoliglotacostarica.com/metodo.php

Mifsud, K. R., Gutiérrez-Mecinas, M., Trollope, A. F., Collins, A., Saunderson, E. A., & Reul, J. M. (2011). Epigenetic mechanisms in stress and adaptation. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 25(7), 1305-1315.

Mora-Gallegos, A., Rojas-Carvajal, M., Salas, S., Saborío-Arce, A., Fornaguera-Trías, J., & Brenes, J. C. (2015). Age-dependent effects of environmental enrichment on spatial memory and neurochemistry. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 118, 96-104.

Moser, M. B., Trommald, M., & Andersen, P. (1994). An increase in dendritic spine density on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells following spatial learning in adult rats suggests the formation of new synapses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(26), 12673-12675.

Nasser, K., Cahana, C., Kandel, I., Kessel, S., & Merrick, J. (2004). Snoezelen: Children with intellectual disability and working with the whole family. The Scientific World Journal, 4, 500-506.

Ortiz-Alonso, T, Hall, C. V., & García, J. M. S. (2013). Localización de fuentes cerebrales en niños generadas por estimulación multilingüística simultánea. Participación educativa, 2(3), 175-186.

Palacios, J., Marchesi, A. & Coll, C. (2006). Desarrollo psicológico y educación: Psicología evolutiva. Madrid: Alianza.

Pietropaolo, S., Branchi, I., Cirulli, F., Chiarotti, F., Aloe, L., & Alleva, E. (2004). Long-term effects of the periadolescent environment on exploratory activity and aggressive behaviour in mice: social versus physical enrichment. Physiology & Behavior, 81(3), 443-453.

Piper, M. C., & Darrah, J. (1994). Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

Rojas, L. (10 de setiembre de 2014). Hospital de Niños tiene una novedosa sala que permite fortalecer los sentidos de los menores. CRHoy.com. Recuperado de http://www.crhoy.com/hospital-de-ninos-tiene-una-novedosa-sala-que-permite-fortalecer-los-sentidos-de-los-menores/

Rosenzweig, M. R., Bennett, E. L., & Diamond, M. C. (1972). Brain changes in response to experience. Scientific American, 226(2), 22-29.

Rutter, M. (2007). Gene–environment interdependence. Developmental Science, 10(1), 12-18.

Sale, A., Berardi, N., & Maffei, L. (2014). Environment and brain plasticity: Towards an endogenous pharmacotherapy. Physiological Reviews, 94(1), 189-234.

Shapiro, M., Melmed, R. N., Sgan-Cohen, H. D., Eli, I., & Parush, S. (2007). Behavioural and physiological effect of dental environment sensory adaptation on children’s dental anxiety. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 115(6), 479-483.

Shapiro, M., Parush, S., Green, M., & Roth, D. (1997). The efficacy of the “Snoezelen” in the management of children with mental retardation who exhibit maladaptive behaviours. The British Journal of Development Disabilities, 43(85), 140-155.

Shonkoff, J.P., & Meisels, S.J. (2000). Prefacio. En: J. P. Shonkoff, & S. J. Meisels (Eds.), Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention, (p.p. xvii-xviii). Cambridge University Press.

Stephenson, J., & Carter, M. (2011). Use of multisensory environments in schools for students with severe disabilities: Perceptions from schools. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 46(2), 276-290.

Stone, M., & Pielstick, N. L. (1969). Effectiveness of Delacato treatment with kindergarten children. Psychology in the Schools, 6(1), 63-68.

Sweatt, J. D. (2009). Experience-dependent epigenetic modifications in the central nervous system. Biological Psychiatry, 65(3), 191-197.

Tapia, J., Carmiol, A. M., & Rosabal-Coto, M. (2012). La psicología del desarrollo en Costa Rica: alcances y perspectivas futuras. Revista Costarricense de Psicología, 31(1-2), 101-121.

Terré, O. (2010). Cómo potenciar la inteligencia del niño: Método Point [Sitio Web]. Recuperado de: http://www.orlandoterre.com/met1.html

The Institutes for the Achievement of Human Potential. (8 de noviembre de 2016). Mayor Victories: Achieved by 3024 Brain-Injured Children [Sitio Web]. Recuperado de: https://www.iahp.org/results/.

Vergara-Díaz, G., Martínez-Galán, M., Martínez-Sahuquillo, M.E., & Echevarría-Ruiz, C. (2011). Eficacia del método de los institutos para el Logro del Potencial Humano (Doman-Delacato) en pacientes con parálisis cerebral infantil. Rehabilitación, 45(3), 256-260.

Wachelke, J. F. R., Natividade, J. C., Faggiani, R. B., & De Andrade, A. L. (2004). Contribuições e limitações do Método Doman-Delacato no contexto da edução especial. Revista Brasileira de Educação Especial, 10(3), 309-320.

Weisberg, D. S., Keil, F. C., Goodstein, J., Rawson, E., & Gray, J. R. (2008). The seductive allure of neuroscience explanations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(3), 470-477.

Wepman, J. M. (1958). Auditory discrimination test. Chicago, IL.: Language Research Associates.

Ziring, P. R., Cooley, W. C., Kastner, T. A., Kummer, M. E., González, D. P. L., Quint, R. D., ... & Sandler, A. D. (1999). American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Children with Disabilities. The treatment of neurologically impaired children using patterning. Pediatrics, 104(5 Pt 1), 1149-1151.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Copyright (c) 2016 Revista Costarricense de Psicología

URL de la licencia: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES

Creative Commons


Revista Costarricense de Psicología / Costa Rican Journal of Psychology by Colegio de Profesionales en Psicología de Costa Rica / Costa Rican Psychologists´Association is licensed under a Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 3.0 Costa Rica License.
Creado a partir de la obra en http://www.rcps-cr.org/

Actualizado 02.2016